- copper (ii) oxide
- cupric oxide
- black copper
- Tenorite – named after Professor Michele Tenore, an Italian botanist at the University of Naples, Italy 
CuO is a secondary copper mineral, a rare earth metal, and the most stable form of oxidized copper
Found in the oxidized zone of hydrothermal copper deposits, a volcanic sublimate 
CuO is a p-type semiconductor
X-ray Diffraction data 1:
X-RAY WAVELENGTH: 1.541838
MAX. ABS. INTENSITY / VOLUME**2: 94.00384821
A graph of XRD patterns of copper oxide thin films as deposited and annealed at various temperatures can be found from reference 2.
A graph of X-ray powder diffraction pattern of CuO nanoparticles (sample no. 2) (a) before calcination, (b) after calcination (PEG template), (c) after calcination (PVA template) and (d) after calcination (PPG template) can be found from reference 3.
CuO has been used in solar cell research. At the University of Shiga, CuO layers were spin-coated at 100 nm thick on FTO substrate. It was concluded that the formation of higher quality CuO thin films may improve future CuO cell efficiency.
A diagram of the structure of a FTO/CuO//Al heterojunction solar cell can be found from reference 4.
The solar cell of structure CuO(300°C)/ (spin.) gave a power conversion efficiency (ɳ) of 1.5E-4%, a fill factor (FF) of 0.25, short circuit current density (JSC) of 13 μAcm^-2 and open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 45mV. The solar cell CuO(450°C)/ (eva.) showed a similar photovoltaic performance. This table can be found from reference 4.
At Chiang Mai University, ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with different photoelectrodes were studied on the effect of CuO layer as a barrier layer toward power conversion characteristics.
Schematic diagram of DSSC structures with different photoelectrodes for ZnO/CuO layer can be found from reference 5.
Semiconductor oxides are a promising alternative to silicon-based solar cells because they possess high optical absorption and are composed of low cost materials. 6
Potential applications: photoconductive, photothermal, catalysis and gas sensor
CuO has been employed in photo-electrochemical cells 7<>
It would make a good selective absorbing layer because of its high solar absorbance and low thermal emittance.
Prepared by: spraying, chemical conversion, chemical brightening, etching, electrodeposition, electronbeam evaporation, reactive DC sputtering and chemical vapor deposition
 Solar absorptance αs, thermal emittance ε, and selectivity αs/ε of CuO films deposited on gold-coated glass substrate
CuO film prepared at 500°C shows smaller values of selectivity, indicating that the well-crystallized CuO film is not useful as a solar selective surface.
Basic Parameters at 300 K
|Group of Symmetry||– C 2/c||, |
|Unit Cell Volume:||V 80.63 Å³|
|Effective electron mass||0.4-0.95||9|
|Electron affinity||4.07 eV|
|Lattice constants||a= 4.652 Å
c= 5.108 Å
|Energy band-gap||1.35 eV||10|
Band Structure and Carrier Concentration
A diagram showing the Band gap: 1.3 – 1.7 eV with a black color and a partial transparency in the visible range can be found from reference 11.
A graph of the temperature dependence of conductivity plotted as ln(s) vs. 10^3/T in a temperature range 125–365 K and a graph of the temperature dependence of conductivity plotted as ln(σT1/2) vs. 103/T can be found from reference .
Effective Mass 12: 7.9 m0
Limited data available
CuO is antiferromagnetic
|Mobility holes :||0.1 cm2 V−1s−1|
|Electric dipole moment :||4.500 .5 (Debye)|
A graph of the device current density voltage (J-V) curves both in the dark and light (under AM 1.5 100 mW cm−2 illumination) of a bi-layer cell with a ~40 nm thick CuO layer can be found from reference 7.
A graph of the measured J-V characteristics of CuO/ thin films in the dark and under AM1.5 illumination can be found from reference 4.
Basic Information :
|Anisotropism:||Strong, blue to grey|
|Color in reflected light:||light gray with golden tint|
|Comments:||Distinct, light to dark brown|
|Absorption coefficient :||α=0|
A graph of the optical transmittance (T%) spectra of a copper oxide thin film as-deposited and annealed at various temperatures can be found on reference 13Serin2005.
Refractive Index: n=2.65498 and the Extinction coefficient: k=0 can be found from reference .
|Enthalpy of formation (298.15 K) :||306.27 kJ/mol (Uncertainty: 41.8 kJ/mol)|
|Entropy (298.15 K) :||234.62 J/mol*K|
|Integrated heat capacity (0-298.15 K) :||-9.75 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity (298.15 K) :||35.69 J/mol*K|
A graph of the glancing angle XRD patterns of copper oxide thin film on n-Si wafer at various deposition temperatures, a graph of Cu 2p X-ray photoemission spectra of copper oxide film at various deposition temperatures, and a graph of Spectrophotometric transmittance for copper oxide film deposited at various temperatures can be found from reference 6.
|Vibrational zero-point energy :||320.1|
|Rotational Constants :||A: 0
|Product of moments of inertia :||37.92152 amu Å
6.29711E-39 gm cm²
|Young’s modulus :||81.6 GPa|
The development of these pages on photovoltaic materials’ properties was carried out at the University of Utah primarily by undergraduate students Jeff Provost and Carina Hahn working with Prof. Mike Scarpulla. Caitlin Arndt, Christian Robert, Katie Furse, Jash Sayani, and Liz Lund also contributed. The work was fully supported by the US National Science Foundation under the Materials World Network program award 1008302. These pages are a work in progress and we solicit input from knowledgeable parties around the world for more accurate or additional information. Contact [email protected] with such suggestions. Neither the University of Utah nor the NSF guarantee the accuracy of these values.
- 1. “The American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database”, American Mineralogist, vol. 88, 2003.
- 2. Citekey Serin2010 not found
- 3. “Sonochemical synthesis, characterization and thermal and optical analysis of CuO nanoparticles”, Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 405, no. 15, pp. 3096 - 3100, 2010.
- 4. a. b. c. “Structure and photovoltaic activity of cupric oxide-based thin film solar cells”, Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, vol. 118, no. 1383, pp. 1021 - 1023, 2010.
- 5. a. b. “Copper oxide thin film and nanowire as a barrier in ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells”, Thin Solid Films, vol. 517, no. 17, pp. 4741 - 4744, 2009.
- 6. a. b. “Photoelectrochemical properties of copper oxide thin films coated on an n-Si substrate”, Thin Solid Films, vol. 372, pp. 250 - 256, 2000.
- 7. a. b. “Facile Synthesis of Colloidal CuO Nanocrystals for Light-Harvesting Applications”, Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 20123312825910287, no. 710315291, pp. 1 - 6, 2012.
- 8. “Crystallinity and surface effects on Young’s modulus of CuO nanowires”, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, no. 16, p. 163112, 2007.
- 9. a. b. “Nanocrystalline CuO films prepared by pyrolysis of Cu-arachidate LB multilayers”, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 257-258, pp. 277 - 282, 2005.
- 10. “Effects of Copper Oxide/Gold Electrode as the Source-Drain Electrodes in Organic Thin-Film Transistors”, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, vol. 10, no. 11, p. H340, 2007.
- 11. “Preparation and characterization of nanostructured CuO thin films for photoelectrochemical splitting of water”, Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 29, p. 709, 2006.
- 12. Citekey Seri2011 not found
- 13. Citekey not found