A PV array for a remote power system usually consists of multiple PV modules.

A PV module consists of individual solar cells electrically connected together to increase their power output. They are packaged so that they are protected from the environment and so that the user is protected from electrical shock. However, several aspects of PV module design which may reduce either the power output of the module or its lifetime need to be identified. The following chapter will examine how solar cells are encapsulated into PV modules and examines some of the issues which arise as a result of interconnection and encapsulation. The most important effects in PV modules or arrays are:

  1. losses due to the interconnection of mismatched solar cells;
  2. the temperature of the module; and
  3. failure modes of PV modules.