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Referencing the Website

For an academic work use one of the following in your reference format:
C.B.Honsberg and S.G.Bowden, “Photovoltaics Education Website,”, 2019.
C.B.Honsberg and S.G.Bowden, “Absorption Coefficient,” page on, 2019.
While I try to keep the weblinks the same, they do change around as content is added. A URL reference to a specific page will change over the life of a textbook or paper.
Send me an email ([email protected]) when your work is about to be published. It’s not essential but I like to to know where the work is used.

Use of images etc

You may use a small fraction of the website such as a few pictures in other websites or publications. Just make sure to reference the site and send an email to [email protected]. Use the reference style above for academic work. Web pages are easier to keep up to date so they can just link directly to the URL. Websites can also use the academic reference above if they wish. If your need goes beyond “fair use”, let’s call it three pictures, please send me an email. As long as its not a wholesale copy of the site its probably ok.

Browser compatibility

The PVCDROM uses interactivity and animations to explain concepts in photovoltaics. We are gradually phasing out the animations in Flash and Shockwave in preference for modern browsers where plugins are not needed and everything is done in HTML5. Most modern browsers such as Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer (10 or later) and Safari support HTML5.

Live Calculation

Spread throughout the document are mini-calculators for the equations in the text. Enter numbers in the blue fields. Javascript is required for the live calculations and is present on nearly all browsers.

Enter very large or very small numbers using the standard exponential notation. For example, 1 000 000 (106) is entered as 1e6.

Flash Player

Most of the animations are now in Flash. It is available on most computers, including linux, but not on the iPhone, iPad or most tablets. Flash is no longer installed with Firefox and is also being phased out in Chrome. To install flash go to: We would like to convert all the Flash to HTML5 but it’s a laborious process.

Download Flash


Director Shockwave is no more. The plugin works on very few computers and phased out by Adobe in early 2019. The last remaining animations were converted to GIFs that run automatically.


Java was previously used for the interactive graphs but is no longer necessary.


Press F11 on most browsers to make the pages fit the screen.

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