We report the use of a rapid flux calculation method using incomplete Riemann zeta functions as a replacement for the {Bose-Einstein} integral in detailed balance calculations to study the efficiency of tandem solar cell stacks under the terrestrial {AM1.5G} spectrum and under maximum concentration. The maximum limiting efficiency for unconstrained and constrained tandem stacks of up to eight solar cells, under the {AM1.5G} spectrum and maximum concentration, are presented. The results found agree well with previously published results with one exception highlighting the precautions necessary when calculating for devices under the {AM1.5G} spectrum. The band gap sensitivities of two tandem solar cell stack arrangements of current interest were also assessed. In the case of a three solar cell tandem stack the results show a large design space and illustrate that the constrained case is more sensitive to band gap variations. Finally, the effect of a non-optimum uppermost band gap in a series constrained five solar cell tandem stack was investigated. The results indicate that a significant re-design is only required when the uppermost band gap is greater than the optimum value with a relatively small effect on the limiting efficiency. It is concluded that this rapid flux calculation method is a powerful tool for the analysis of tandem solar cells and is particularly useful for the design of devices where optimum band gaps may not be available. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

VL - 16 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pip.799 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Applied Photovoltaics Y1 - 2007 A1 - Wenham, S.R. A1 - Martin A Green A1 - Watt, M. E. A1 - R. Corkish AB -PB - Earthscan CY - London, UK SN - 1-84407-401-3 UR - http://www.amazon.com/Applied-Photovoltaics-Stuart-R-Wenham/dp/1844074013/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1279558328&sr=8-1 N1 -

Introduction

1. The Characteristics of Sunlight

2. Semiconductors and P-N Junctions

3. The Behavior of Solar Cells

4. Cell Properties and Design

5. PV Cell Interconnection and Module Fabrication

6. Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System Components

7. Designing Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

8. Specific Purpose Photovoltaic Applications

9. Remote Area Power Supply Systems

10. Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

11. Photovoltaic Water Pumping System Components

12. PV Water Pumping System Design

Appendicies

Index

ER - TY - Generic T1 - Approaching the 29% limit efficiency of silicon solar cells T2 - Thirty-First IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Y1 - 2005 A1 - Richard M Swanson JF - Thirty-First IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference PB - 01/2005 CY - Lake buena Vista, FL, USA N1 -ER - TY - THES T1 - Aluminium Back Surface Field in Buried Contact Solar Cells Y1 - 2000 A1 - Anwar, K.K. PB - University of New South Wales VL - Bachelor of Engineering N1 -

ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Attaining Thirty-Year Photovoltaic System Lifetime JF - Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications Y1 - 1994 A1 - Durand, S. N1 -

ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Accurate measurements of the silicon intrinsic carrier density from 78 to 340 K JF - Journal of Applied Physics Y1 - 1993 A1 - Misiakos, Konstantinos A1 - Tsamakis, Dimitris AB - The intrinsic carrier density in silicon has been measured by a novel technique based on low‐frequency capacitance measurements of a p+‐i‐n+ diode biased in high injection. The major advantage of the method is its insensitivity to uncertainties regarding the exact values of the carrier mobilities, the recombination parameters, and the doping density. The intrinsic carrier density was measured in the temperature range from 78 to 340 K. At 300 K the value of ni was found to be (9.7±0.1)×10^9 cm−3. VL - 74 IS - 5 JO - J. Appl. Phys. ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Analysis of the interaction of a laser pulse with a silicon wafer: Determination of bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity JF - Journal of Applied Physics Y1 - 1987 A1 - Keung L. Luke A1 - Li-Jen Cheng KW - carrier lifetime KW - LASERRADIATION HEATING KW - MINORITY CARRIERS KW - RECOMBINATION KW - SILICON KW - SILICON SOLAR CELLS KW - SURFACE PROPERTIES KW - THEORETICAL DATA KW - VELOCITY KW - WAFERS PB - AIP VL - 61 UR - http://link.aip.org/link/?JAP/61/2282/1 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Accuracy of Analytical Expressions for Solar Cell Fill Factors JF - Solar Cells Y1 - 1982 A1 - Martin A Green VL - 7 N1 -

ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Application of the superposition principle to solar-cell analysis JF - IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices Y1 - 1979 A1 - F.A. Lindholm A1 - Fossum, J.G. A1 - E.L. Burgess AB - The principle of superposition is used to derive from fundamentals the widely used shifting approximation that the current-voltage characteristic of an illuminated solar cell is the dark current-voltage characteristic shifted by the short-circuit photocurrent. Thus the derivation requires the linearity of the boundary-value problems that underlie the electrical characteristics. This focus on linearity defines the conditions that must hold if the shifting approximation is to apply with good accuracy. In this regard, if considerable photocurrent and considerable dark thermal recombination current both occur within the junction space-charge region, then the shifting approximation is invalid. From a rigorous standpoint, it is invalid also if low-injection concentrations of holes and electrons are not maintained throughout the quasi-neutral regions. The presence of sizable series resistance also invalidates the shifting approximation. Methods of analysis are presented to treat these cases for which shifting is not strictly valid. These methods are based on an understanding of the physics of cell operation. This understanding is supported by laboratory experiments and by exact computer solution of the relevant boundary-value problems. For the case of high injection in the base region, the method of analysis employed accurately yields the dependence of the open-circuit voltage on the short-circuit current (or the illumination level). VL - 26 ER - TY - BOOK T1 - Applied Solar Energy Y1 - 1976 A1 - Meinel, A.B. A1 - Meinel, M.P. PB - Addison Wesley Publishing Co. N1 -

ER - TY - JOUR T1 - The absorption of radiation in solar stills JF - Solar Energy Y1 - 1969 A1 - P.I. Cooper VL - 12 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V50-497BD6C-27/2/a4ca2069fe8c8b0cfa571de016d93cc5 N1 -

ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Absolutwerte der optischen Absorptionskonstanten von Alkalihalogenidkristallen im Gebiet ihrer ultravioletten Eigenfrequenzen JF - Annalen der Physik Y1 - 1934 A1 - Bauer, Gerhard VL - 411 IS - 4 JO - Ann. Phys. ER - TY - JOUR T1 - The Action of Light on Selenium JF - Proceedings of the Royal Society, London Y1 - 1877 A1 - Adams, W.G. A1 - Day, R.E. VL - A25 N1 -

ER -