MnS

 Material: MnS

Basic Info [1]:

  • A naturally occurring mineral, Alabandite.
  • Named after the location of discovery, Alabanda, Aïdin, Turkey.
  • Discovered in 1832.
  • Found in epithermal sulfide vein deposits.

Molecular Weight: 87.00 gm

Composition: 63.14% Mn, 36.86 % S

Empirical Formula: Mn2+S

Cleavage: {100} Perfect, {010} Perfect, {001} Perfect

Color: Black, Lead gray, Brownish gray.

Diaphaneity: Opaque

Fracture: Irregular/uneven

Hardness: 3.5-4 - Copper Penny-Fluorite

Luminescence: Non-flourecent

Luster: Sub Metallic

Magnetism: Nonmagnetic

Streak: Dark green, brown.

Tenacity: Brittle

Used for [7]:

  • solar selective coatings
  • sensors
  • photoconductors
  • optical mass memories

 

MnS thin films can be found in several forms: the cubic modification having the rock-salt type structure (α-MnS), the zinc-blende-type (β-MnS), or wurtzite-type structure (γ-MnS) [7].

 

Crystal Structure [2]:

Crystal System: Isometric

Class (H-M): m3m (4/3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral

Space Group: Fm3m {F4/3 2/m}

Space Group Setting: Fm3m

Cell Parameters: a = 5.2236Å

Unit Cell Volume: V 142.53 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Z: 4

Morphology: Crystals cubic or octahedral, to 1 cm. Commonly massive, granular.

Twinning: Lamellar parallel to {111}

 

[3] X-RAY WAVELENGTH:     1.541838

      MAX. ABS. INTENSITY / VOLUME**2:      84.46014982   

2-THETA INTENSITY D-SPACING H K L Multiplicity
29.62 13.40 3.0164 1 1 1 8
34.33 100.00 2.6123 2 0 0 6
49.34 61.53 1.8471 2 2 0 12
58.60 5.40 1.5752 3 1 1 24
61.48 18.79 1.5082 2 2 2 8
72.35 7.90 1.3061 4 0 0 6
80.06 1.60 1.1986 3 3 1 24
82.58 20.55 1.1682 4 2 0 24

 

X-ray diffraction pattern for MnS showing peak intensities can be found in reference 4.

Find and list the crystal structure, atom positions, and create a Crystal Maker Model

 

PV Applications:

MnS is a dilute magnetic semiconductor that is used in solar cells as a window/ buffer layer [5]

 

Basic Parameters at 300 K [1]:

Density: 3.95 - 4.04, Average = 3.99

Band Structure:

Band Gap [5]: 3.02 eV

 

Temperature Dependences [7]:

 β and γ types MnS can transform irreversibly to the stable α type MnS at 100–400 °C

MnS thin films can be deposited at room temperature by chemical bath deposition

 

Donors and Acceptors [8]: Donors are substitutional iodine and acceptors are manganese vacancies for p-type α-MnS.

 

Electrical Properties

 

Basic Parameters of Electrical Properties [8]: For p-type α-MnS, conductivity occurs from holes in a 3d-band (Mn3+). The mobility of these holes are not thermally activated.

 

Mobility and Hall Effect [6]:

Hall Mobility: 10 cm2/V s   T = 625 K

Hall coefficient: 102 cm3/C

 

Optical properties [2]:

Type: Isotropic

RI values: n = 2.70

Maximum Birefringence: δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence

Surface Relief: Very High

Color in reflected light: Gray-white

 

A graph of the optical transmission spectra of MnS showing the peak maximum points and the peak minimum points can be seen at reference 7.

 

A graph of the variation of refractive index n versus wavelength for a MnS thin film can be seen at reference 7. 

 

A graph of α 2 (absorption coefficient) vs. photon energy can be seen at reference 7. The optical energy gap Eg = 3.88 eV was found.

 

Thermal properties [9]: Linear thermal expansion coefficients β for α-MnS are

β = 16. 3x10-6 ◦C-1 (225-591C) and β = 17. 4x10-6 ◦C-1 (591-928C).

 

References:

[1] WebMineral, “Alabandite Mineral Data”, http://webmineral.com/data/Alabandite.shtml#.Uj9224ZvPew

[2] J. Ralph, I. Chau, mindat Available at: <http://mindat.org> (2012).

http://www.mindat.org/min-89.html

[3] Downs R T (2006) The RRUFF Project: an integrated study of the chemistry, crystallography, Raman and infrared spectroscopy of minerals. Program and Abstracts of the 19th General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association in Kobe, Japan. O03-13

http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/AMS/minerals/Alabandite

[4] Downs R T (2006) The RRUFF Project: an integrated study of the chemistry, crystallography, Raman and infrared spectroscopy of minerals. Program and Abstracts of the 19th General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association in Kobe, Japan. O03-13

 http://rruff.info/alabandite/display=default/

[5] C. D. Lokhande et al. “Process and Characterization of Chemical Bath Deposited Manganese Sulphide (MnS) Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 330, No. 2, PP. 70-75. September 1998.

 [6] Madelung, O. (2004). Semiconductors: Data handbook. (3rd ed.). Springer.

[7] C. Gumus, C. Ulutas, Y. Ufuktepe. “Optical and Structural Properties of Manganese Sulfide Thin Films,” Optical Materials, vol. 29, No. 9, pp. 1183-1187. May 2007.

[8] H.H. Heikens, C.F. Van Bruggen, C. Haas. “Electrical Properties of α-MnS,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 39 No. 8, pp. 833-840, 1978.

[9] S. Furuseth and A. Kjekshus. “On the Properties of α-MnS and MnS2,” ACTA Chemica Scandinavica, Vol. 19, pp. 1405-1410. 1965. 

 

The development of these pages on photovoltaic materials’ properties was carried out at the University of Utah primarily by undergraduate students Jeff Provost and Carina Hahn working with Prof. Mike Scarpulla. Caitlin Arndt, Christian Robert, Katie Furse, Jash Sayani, and Liz Lund also contributed. The work was fully supported by the US National Science Foundation under the Materials World Network program award 1008302. These pages are a work in progress and we solicit input from knowledgeable parties around the world for more accurate or additional information. Contact earthabundantpv@eng.utah.edu with such suggestions. Neither the University of Utah nor the NSF guarantee the accuracy of these values.