An antireflection of silicon nitride is typically deposited using chemical vapour deposition process (CVD). Precursor gases of silane (SiH4) and ammonia (NH3) are fed into a chamber and break down due to temperature (LPCVD) or due to a plasma enhancement (PECVD). Other systems use microwaves to cause the silane/ammonia reaction to take place. The complete reaction is:
3SiH4 + 4NH3 -> Si3N4 + 12H2
but the usual reaction to produce a non-stoichiometric film with the incoporation of large amounts of hydrogen (SixNy:H).
Older cell designs use titanium dioxide (TiO2), which provides a good antireflection coating and is simpler to apply but does not provide surface or bulk passivation.